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    Harvard Style

    The Harvard Style of referencing is widely accepted in scholarly circles. In the Harvard Style each reference is indicated in the text by the author and date of the publication cited, sometimes with added information such as page numbers. The full details of these references are listed at the end of the text in a Reference list.

    You may come across many different styles or ways of using the Harvard or author-date system. The following information and examples are based on:

    Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Australia.

     

    In-text References

    In the text of your essay or thesis you should identify your source by giving, in parentheses, the author's name and year of publication of the work to which reference has been made. From the textual reference, the reader can turn to the alphabetical list of references for full publication details. If directly quoting from a work use single quotation marks and relevant page number.

    For example:

    Larsen 1971was the first to propound the theory.

    OR

    The theory was first propounded in 1970 Larsen 1971.

    For example:

    Larsen 1971, p. 245noted ‘many of the facts in this case are incorrect’.

    OR

    ’Many of the facts in this case are incorrect’ Larsen 1971, p. 245.

     

    Reference List

    At the end of your work you should include a list of ALL the references you have cited in your text. In the Harvard Style sources that are not cited in the text but are relevant to the subject may be listed separately as a bibliography. The same method of presentation is used for both a list of references and a bibliography.

    The Reference List is arranged alphabetically by author, and thereafter chronologically, starting with the earliest date.

    For example:

    Jones, AB 2000, …

    Jones, B 1995, …

    Smith, AK 1990, …

    Smith, AK 1995, …

    Stein, B 2003 …

    Stein, B & Reynolds, JS 1995, …

    Stein, B & Reynolds, JS 2000, …

    Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, …

    Yarbro, CH, Frogge, MH, Goodman, M & Groenwald, SL 2000, …

    Young, JC 1988a, …

    Young, JC 1988b, …

    The format of the citation depends on the nature of the work, ie. whether it is a book, journal article, website, etc.

    In general the order of elements contained within each reference should include: author – date – title of work – title of larger work if any– publishing details – date of access if electronic.

    Apart from the author and date, each element is separated from the others with a comma and the citation finishes with a full stop.

     

    Authors

    Whatever type of work you are referencing, the way you list the authors’ names depends on the number of authors.

    Examples

    Book

    Authorsof book - surname and initials Year of publication, Title of book - italicised, Edition. Publisher, Place of publication.

    Examples:

    Jones, B 1995, Sleepers, wake!: technology and the future of work, 4th edn, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

    Book chapter

    Authorsof chapter - surname and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of chapter - in single quotation marks’, [in] Author of book if different, Title of book - italicised, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication, Page numbers.

    Example:

    Crawford, RJ 1998, 'Plastics available to the designer', in Plastics engineering, 3rd edn, Heinemann-Butterworth, Oxford, pp. 6-18.

     

    Journal article

    Authorsof article - surname and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of article - in single quotation marks’, Journal name - italicised, volume number, issue number, page numbers.

    Example:

    Zivkovic, B & Fujii, I 2001, 'An analysis of isothermal phase change of phase change material within rectangular and cylindrical containers', Solar energy, vol. 70, no.1, pp. 51-61.

     

    Conference paper

    Authorsof paper - surname and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of paper - in single quotation marks’, [in] Editor if applicable, Title of published proceeding which may include place held and dates- italicised, Publisher, Place of publication, page numbers.

    Example:

    Kovacs, GL 1994, ‘Simulation-scheduling system using hybrid software technology’, in ComputerIntegrated Manufacturing and Automation Technology: Proceedingsof the 4th International conference, Troy, New York, October 10-12, 1994, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, California, pp.351-356.

     

    Newspaper articles

    Authorsof article - surname and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of article - in single quotation marks’, Newspaper name - italicised, day month, page numbers.

    Example:

    Tobler, K & Kerin, J 2002, ‘Hormone alert for cancer’, The Australian, 10 July, p. 1.

    Note: if the newspaper article does NOT have an author then provide details in-text citation only, NOT in the Reference List.

    For example: The Australian (10 July 2002, p.1states……

     

    Thesis

    Author of thesis - surname and initials Year of preparation of thesis, ‘Title of thesis – in single quotation marks’, Award, Institution under whose auspices the study was taken.

    Example:

    Garland, CP 1986, ‘Structure and removal of non-cellulosic components of eucalypt woods’, MApplSci thesis, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology.

     

    Reports

    Authorsof report - surname and initials Year of publication, Title of report - italicised, Report series code and number, Sponsoring body or body issuing report series, Publisher if different from sponsoring body.

    Example:

    Kogan, P, Moses, I & El-Khawas, EH 1994, Staffing higher education : meeting newchallenges : report of the IMHE project on policies for academic staffing in highereducation, Higher education policy series, no. 27, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London.

     

    Patents

    Namesof inventor. Namesof assignees, Patent title - italicised. Patent number Date of patent including day and month.

    Example:

    Wilmott, JM & Znaiden, AP Avon Products Inc., Cosmetic preparation incorporating stabilized ascorbic acid, U.S. patent 4,983,382 Jan. 8 1991.

     

    CD-ROM

    Author/editor. Year, Title – italicised (edition, CD-ROM, Publisher, Place of publication.

    Example:

    Young, B & Heath, J 2000, Wheater's functional histology : a text and colour atlas, 4th edn, CD-ROM, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.

     

    Discussion list message

    Author <author’s email address> Year of posting, title of posting – in quotation marks, description of posting, date and month of posting, name of list owner, date of viewing, <URL>.

    Example:

    Shively, E <chminf-l@listserv.indiana.edu> 1997, ‘CA pre-1967 information’, list server, 1 July, Chemical Information Sources Discussion List, viewed 3 July, <http://listserv.indiana.edu/archives/chminf-l.html>.

     

    Personal communication

    Information gained through personal communication, either – face-to-face interview or conversation, telephone call, facsimile, letter, email, etc. – should be provided as an in-text citation. Details of personal communications do not need to be included in the Reference List.

    The information, including day, month and year, is provided in the text, or parenthically. Details of the organisation that the person represents may also be included. Note that initials precede the family name.

    Examples:

    When interviewed on 24 April 1999, Ms S Savieri confirmed…..

    Ms S Savieri confirmed this by facsimile on 24 April 1999.

    It has been confirmed that an outbreak occurred in Shepparton S Savieri 1999, pers. comm., 24 April.

    Ms S Savieri Australian Institute of Criminologyconfirmed this by email on 24 April 1999.

    It has been confirmed that an outbreak occurred in Shepparton S Savieri [Australian Institute of Criminology] 1999, pers. comm., 24 April.

     

    Website documents

    Author/editor. Year of document, Title of document – italicised, name of the sponsor of the source, date of viewing, <URL>.

    Example:

    AVEL: Australasian Virtual Engineering Library 2003, AVEL Sustainability Knowledge Network, AVEL, viewed 12 March 2004, <http://www.avel.edu.au/>.

     

    Film, videos, TV and radio programs

    Title of program – italicised date of recording, format, publisher, place of recording, date viewed.

    Example:

    What are we going to do with the money? 1997, television program, SBS Television, Sydney, 8 August.

    Or

    Swiss ball: exercises for performance and function 1999, video recording, Galaxy Leisure Corporation, 3 February.

    Note: the in-text reference would be to the title of the program, also in italics.

     

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